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May 3, 2016

Eighth Circuit panel (sort of) finds severe erroneous career-offender sentence substantively unreasonable

A helpful reader alerted me to a notable Eighth Circuit panel ruling today in US v. Martinez, No 15-1004 (8th Cir. May 3, 2016) (available here). Here is how the majority opinion gets started and a few notable substantive statements:

Fernando Martinez pled guilty to possession of fifty grams or more of methamphetamine with the intent to distribute. The district court found Martinez to be a career offender based in part on the residual clause of § 4B1.2(a)(2) of the United States Sentencing Guidelines (U.S.S.G.) and sentenced him to 262 months' imprisonment.  It indicated, alternatively, it would sentence Martinez as a career offender even if he was not a career offender.  Martinez appeals, arguing he is not a career offender and his sentence is substantively unreasonable.

The government concedes Martinez is no longer a career offender under the guidelines following the United States Supreme Court's decision in Johnson v. United States, __ U.S. __, 135 S. Ct. 2551, 2557 (2015), but asserts no remand is necessary because the district court imposed a reasonable alternative sentence that renders any error harmless. Because we conclude otherwise — that the district court's alternative sentence is substantively unreasonable — we reverse and remand for resentencing....

We infer from [a sentencing] statement that the district court believed the escape conviction was a crime of violence — and Martinez was a career offender — whether the guidelines classified it as a crime of violence or not.  In other words, the district court sentenced Martinez to an additional nine years because, as a nineteen-year-old, Martinez threw an elbow at a police officer without striking the officer and ran from police for a short distance.  This severe variance is unreasonable.

The district court's other justifications do not support the degree of the upward variance either.  First, Martinez's convictions do not warrant such a severe upward variance.  Martinez's two convictions undoubtedly demonstrate serious, violent behavior, but the guideline range already accounted for these prior convictions, each of which received three criminal history points....

Second, the evidence the government presented relating to Martinez's gang ties does not justify a nine-year upward variance either.  The government presented evidence Martinez appeared in music videos along with other members of the East Side Locos prior to his incarceration.  He also appeared with other East Side Locos gang members in photographs.  While these photos and videosshow Martinez's gang ties, they do not depict Martinez actively engaging in any violent behavior.  And, more importantly, they do not depict such egregious, violent behavior that they warrant the substantial upward variance the district court imposed.

May 3, 2016 at 08:00 PM | Permalink

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