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May 14, 2020

"People in Prison in 2019" ... as well as a partial 2020 update

The title of this post is the title of this great new Vera institute of Justice publication that provides the latest nationwide prison population headcounts.  Here his how the first part of the report gets started:

Effective advocacy and policy making require up-to-date information.  Vera Institute of Justice (Vera) researchers collected data on the number of people who were incarcerated in state and federal prisons as of December 31, 2019, to provide timely information on how prison incarceration is changing in the United States.  This report fills a gap until the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) releases its next annual report — likely in early 2021 — which will include additional data, such as population breakdowns by race and sex.  In response to the novel coronavirus pandemic, Vera collected updated data on people in prison at the end of the first quarter of 2020 to reflect any changes that had occurred as a result of the outbreak.

At the end of 2019, there were an estimated 1,435,500 people in state and federal prisons, down 33,000 from year-end 2018 (2.2 percent decline).  There were 1,260,400 people under state prison jurisdiction, 28,200 fewer than in 2018 (2.2 percent decline); and 175,100 in the federal prison system, 4,800 fewer than in 2018 (2.7 percent decline).

The prison incarceration rate in the United States was 437 people in prison per 100,000 residents, a 2.6 percent drop from 449 per 100,000 in the previous year.  This represents a 17.5 percent decline in the rate of prison incarceration since its peak in 2007.

A decrease in the number of people in federal prisons, along with at least 5 percent declines in incarceration rates in eight states, account for the overall decline in the national prison incarceration rate.  Of those eight states, only three — Missouri, New York, and Oklahoma—have relatively large prison populations.  Prison incarceration continued to rise in some states, such as Nebraska, Idaho, and West Virginia....

Population data collected for March/April 2020 from 44 states and the federal Bureau of Prisons in response to the COVID-19 pandemic showed negligible declines in numbers (a 1.6 percent decrease) during the first three months of 2020.  During the first months of 2020, U.S. prisons emerged as epicenters of the COVID-19 pandemic.  In light of this crisis, advocates and public health officials made repeated calls for elected officials to use clemency and other immediate measures to reduce state and federal prison populations. Vera requested additional data for the end of March or beginning of April 2020 to account for any prison population changes during the first quarter of the year.  Data from 44 states and the BOP show that none had moved with the urgency required to meet the recommendations of public health officials to reduce incarceration.  Across all jurisdictions that reported data to Vera, prison populations had decreased by only 1.6 percent.

Five states — Idaho, Iowa, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Wyoming — had more people in prison on March 31, 2020, than they did on December 31, 2019.  The remaining states showed only small declines.  While Missouri’s prison population declined 14.2 percent in 2019, it had declined only 1.2 percent during the first quarter of 2020. 

The largest percentage reductions were in Vermont (down 11.6 percent), North Dakota (down 9.8 percent), and Oregon (down 8.3 percent).  The largest reductions in the number of people in prison were from large states: Florida (down 2,100 people), California (down 1,700 people), and New York (down 1,500 people).

May 14, 2020 at 02:19 PM | Permalink

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