« Broad Michigan expungement bill signed into law (time to step up Ohio) | Main | "COVID-19 in Juvenile Facilities" »

October 13, 2020

Noticing a lurking Eighth Amendment issue in SCOTUS arguments over statute of limitations for military rape prosecutions

The US Supreme Court issued another order list this morning with little of interest for sentencing fans, and I am not expecting much criminal law discussion in the on-going confirmation hearings for Judge Amy Coney Barrett.  But SCOTUS is hearing oral argument today in US v. Briggs, which is worth watching for reasons Evan Lee explains in this post at SCOTUSblog under the title "Case preview: Determining the statute of limitations for military rape — and possibly a lot more."  Here is an excerpt:

When the Supreme Court entertains argument on Tuesday in United States v. Briggswhich had originally been scheduled for Monday, March 23, it will be asked to decide whether three men convicted of military rape should not have been prosecuted in the first place because of the statute of limitations.  And, should each side’s principal argument fail, the court may be forced to decide a bigger question: whether the Eighth Amendment prohibition against capital punishment for non-homicide rape applies to rape in the military.

This litigation consists of three consolidated cases, which all involve male military personnel convicted of raping female military personnel.  Michael Briggs, Richard Collins and Humphrey Daniels claim that the statute of limitations should have barred their prosecutions.  The government argues that there is no statute of limitations for military rape because Congress exempted all military crimes punishable by death from limitations.  The defendants counter that the cruel and unusual punishments clause of the Eighth Amendment prohibits the death penalty for all rapes not involving fatalities, including military rapes.  That, in turn, means there is a statute of limitations for military rape, and it expired before any of the three men were prosecuted.  The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces agreed with the defendants....

A key issue in this litigation is which subsection of the UCMJ, 10 U.S.C. Section 843, applies: subsection (a), which states that “any [military] offense punishable by death may be tried and punished at any time without limitation,” or subsection (b), which creates a five-year statute of limitations for other military offenses.  The government argues that Section 843(a) applies because military rape is made “punishable by death” by 10 U.S.C. Section 920(a), which states, “Any person subject to this chapter who commits an act of sexual intercourse, by force and without consent, is guilty of rape and shall be punished by death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct.”  The three defendants argue that military rape is not “punishable by death” because the Supreme Court’s Eighth Amendment precedents prohibit capital punishment for non-fatality rapes.  And if military rape is not punishable by death, then the applicable limitations period is the default provision of Section 843(b)....

At oral argument, it will be interesting to see whether any of the justices demonstrate an appetite for the constitutional issue, or whether they think the statutory interpretation questions are dispositive.  

I strongly agree it will be interesting to see how the Justices may bring up the Eighth Amendment during oral argument today, and I will plan to update this post accordingly.

UPDATE: The oral argument transcript in Briggs is now available here.  A quick search reveals the term "Eighth Amendment" coming up 32 times over the transcript's 65 pages.  Over at Crime & Consequences, Kent Scheidegger has this extended post on the case under the title "The Eighth Amendment and Statutes of Limitations." Here is how this post starts and ends:

What do statutes of limitations and the constitutional ban on “cruel and unusual punishments” have to do with each other? The logical answer is “nothing.” But the law follows strange paths, and the two issues crossed in today’s Supreme Court argument on the statute of limitations for rape in the military justice system....

I won’t venture a prediction based on this argument. If the eight justices divide four-four, we might be seeing a reargument.

October 13, 2020 at 09:55 AM | Permalink

Comments

Post a comment

In the body of your email, please indicate if you are a professor, student, prosecutor, defense attorney, etc. so I can gain a sense of who is reading my blog. Thank you, DAB